External Debt (Total) - Sources and Methods

External debt statistics are presented by type of borrower instead of by type of creditor.

The source of debt data is the DRS, supplemented by World Bank estimates. The DRS is concerned solely with low- and middle-income economies and does not collect data on external debt for other groups of borrowers, nor from economies that are not members of the World Bank. The figures on debt refer to amounts disbursed and outstanding, expressed in US dollars converted at official exchange rates. Total disbursements and total repayments are also reported as separate items of the balance of payments. Valuation adjustments explain differences between the change in debt outstanding and the net movements shown in the balance of payment items.

Data on international reserves and gold holdings are from the IFS data files.