CIESIN Thematic Guides

The Maastricht Treaty

The Treaty on European Union, known as the Maastricht Treaty, was signed at Maastricht, the Netherlands, on February 7, 1992. The treaty amends the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community in 1957. The Maastricht Treaty includes specific references to environmental policy and sustainable development, in its Introduction of Signatories, in Article B of its Common Provisions, and in a Declaration on Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Community Measures within its final act. The complete text of the Maastricht Treaty is available here.

Shea (1993) examines the relationship between the increased integration of the European Community (EC) and the environmental policies of its member states in "European Environmental Policy." Wilkinson (1990) discusses EC environmental policy prior to the Maastricht Treaty in "Greening the Treaty."

Haigh and von Moltke (1990) offer a general overview of the EC's role in international environmental policy in "The European Community: An Environmental Force." EC activities and policies related to trade-environment issues are also discussed in the 1992 U.S. Office of Technology Assessment report Trade and the Environment.