The Earth Observations International Coordination Working Group (EO-ICWG) is the forum within which the U.S., Europe, Japan, and Canada discuss, plan, and negotiate the international cooperation essential for implementation of the International Earth Observing System in the 1990s and beyond. The delegations to EO-ICWG are led by the Earth observations offices of their respective space agencies: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the European Space Agency (ESA); the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the National Space Development Agency (NASDA), and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI); and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The delegations also include respective operational environmental monitoring agencies: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), and the Atmospheric Environment Service (AES). The group meets two to three times per year, addressing a full range of technical and polity issues, which include payload, operations, data management, data polity, and instrument interfaces. EO-ICWG has defined the elements listed below as the space-based component of IEOS:
Table 7 lists the IEOS satellites and their respective instrument complements. Given the transience of national budget scenarios (consequently scheduling), this chart should be considered a planning document. Refer to the Mission Elements section for more detail on the various spacecraft that comprise IEOS. The paragraphs below offer brief synopses of the partner notion contributions.
Originally a single polar-orbiting platform series concept, ESA's POEM mission recently was split into two satellite series---one for environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry (ENVISAT), and one for operational meteorological and climate monitoring (METOP). The spacecraft, instrumentation, launch, operations, and associated data system are provided through ESA, individual member state contributions, and EUMETSAT. ESA's plans call for the first flight of POEM-ENVISAT in mid-1998, with a follow-on flight in 2003. This satellite series will contribute to environmental studies in land surface properties, atmospheric chemistry, aerosol distribution, and marine biology. The second satellite series---POEM-METOP---will fly an operational meteorological package and climate monitoring instrumentation in cooperation with EUMETSAT and NOAA. This series will take over morning operational satellite coverage from the NOAA POES system in 2000.
As a result of the rescoping exercise, France may contribute two TOPEX/Poseidon-heritage instruments for flight on the EOS-ALT series (i.e., DORIS and SSALT). An international science team will be formed to conduct global climate change research using data from these instruments.
Further European contributions to IEOS include provision of the Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer (MIMR) by ESA for flight on the EOS-PM series; the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) by EUMETSAT for flight on the EOS-PM series; and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS)---a joint U.S./U.K. instrument investigation---for flight on the EOS-CHEM series. European scientists participate in these and other instrument investigation teams. Finally, France and the U.K. are sponsoring several EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations (see pages 115, 122, and 129).
ADEOS, TRMM, and their follow-ons are the Earth observation missions designated as the Japanese contributions to IEOS. In tandem with their predecessors [e.g., Japan's Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1)], these satellites constitute the Japanese Earth Observing System (JEOS). Japan plans to launch the polar-orbiting ADEOS mission in February 1996, into a sun-synchronous 98.6deg. inclination orbit, with an ~800-km altitude. The objectives of ADEOS include Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic remote sensing.
NASA will provide the NSCAT and TOMS instruments as the U.S. contribution to the payload, and will acquire ADEOS data directly at its ground station in Fairbanks, Alaska. After the first 6 months of mission operations, data will be collected on a routine basis for NOAA at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility WFF). The conceptual design of the ADEOS follow-on---ADEOS II---is still underway. One proposal calls for dividing ADEOS II into two separate missions, with the first satellite to be launched in 1999. ADEOS II would carry a global monitoring payload, while an ADEOS II follow-on would have high-resolution visible and microwave sensors. Plans call for NASA to provide NSCAT II for the first ADEOS II payload.
The TRMM satellite, which will fly in a 35deg. inclination orbit, will be launched in August 1997. The payload will be provided jointly by NASDA and NASA. NASA will provide the TRMM spacecraft, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS), the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), a radiation budget instrument (i.e., CERES), and instrument integration. Japan is providing the Precipitation Radar (PR) and launch on an H-II ELV A TRMM follow-on (TRMM-2) is being proposed for launch in 2000, into a 55deg. inclination orbit.
With regard to EOS, MITI is providing ASTER for flight on EOS-AM1. In addition, an as yet to be determined Japanese instrument will be accommodated on the EOS-CHEM series. Japan is also sponsoring one of the EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations (see page 121).
CSA is providing MOPITT for flight on EOS-AM1 and possible reflight on EOS-AM2. This instrument will measure atmospheric carbon monoxide and methane. CSA is also sponsoring two EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations (see pages 107 and 128).
Other international investigators were selected by NASA through the EOS Announcement of Opportunity. Principal Investigators for Interdisciplinary Science Investigations were chosen from Brazil and Australia (see pages 105, 112, and 117). Co-investigators for the science investigations and EOS instrument team members represent 10 countries. These international EOS investigators are funded by their respective national agencies, but will have full access to observations acquired by EOS, and other services made available through EOSDIS.
The Graduate Student Fellowship in Global Change Research involves substantial international participation (see the Global Change Fellowship Program section). From 1990-1992, 33 fellowships have been awarded to foreign students, representing 18 countries. The total number of fellowships will increase prior to launch of the EOS satellites, thereby ensuring a pool of highly qualified Earth scientists to disseminate the data generated during the 15-year mission lifetime.