CIESIN Reproduced, with permission, from: Halpern, S. 1992. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: Process and documentation. Providence, RI: Academic Council for the United Nations System (ACUNS).

                       The United Nations 

Conference on Environment and


Process and Documentation

Shanna L. Halpern

Reports and Papers

1993 No. 2

The Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS)

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Reports and Papers are published and distributed by the Academic Council on the United Nations System as part of its program to expand the understanding of the problems of international cooperation and the role of international institutions. The individual author(s), however, remain responsible for the content of work that is presented.

(c)1993 by the Academic Council on the United Nations System. All rights reserved under International and Pan American Convention. No part of this report may be reproduced by any other means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from the publisher. All inquiries should be addressed to the Academic Council on the United Nations System.

ISBN 1-880660-05-9 $10.00

About the Author

Shanna L. Halpern is presently an Adjunct Professor of Law at Rutgers University School of Law. She was previously a Visiting Associate Professor at Brown University and Williams College, and served for eleven years as an attorney for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency both in Washington, DC and their regional office in Philadelphia.


BD Biological Diversity

CFC Chlorofluorocarbon gases

CH4 Methane

CO2 Carbon Dioxide

ECOSOC United Nations Economic and Social Council

ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and

the Caribbean

EPA Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.)

EP&L Environmental Policy and Law

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization

FCCC Framework Convention on Climate Change

G-77 Group of 77

GA United Nations General Assembly

GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GEF Global Environmental Facility

GHGs Greenhouse Gases

IGO Intergovernmental Organizations

ILM International Legal Materials

INC International Negotiating Committee

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IUCN International Union for the Conservation of

Nature and National Resources (World

Conservation Union)

NGO Nongovernmental Organization

OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and


PrepCom Preparatory Committee of the Conference

UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment

and Development

UNCED SG Secretary-General of the UNCED, Maurice


UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and


UNDP United Nations Development Program

UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and

Cultural Organization

UNSG United Nations Secretary-General

WCED World Commission on Environment and


WG Working Group (of referenced organization)

WMO World Meteorological Organization

A Note About Locating Information

In addition to being located in official designated repositories for UN documents, many materials related to the UNCED can also be found reprinted in International Legal Materials (ILM), a publication of the American Society of International Law or Environmental Policy and Law (EP&L), a journal sponsored by the International Council on Environmental Law. For daily news accounts of activities surrounding the Conference itself, see issues of Earth Summit Times, the official newspaper of record for UNCED, published by Theodore W. Kheel and Katsuhiko Yazakii with the Kyoto Forum and EcoFund '92 in cooperation with the New York Times FAX and Jornal do Brasil.

Background Materials

Researchers new to this field may wish to consult a number of more readily available materials from the following sample:

1. Stockholm Declaration. Adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution 2998 of December 15, 1972. (UN Doc A/CONF.48/14) [Reprinted in ILM, Vol. 11, p. 1416 (1972)].

2. 1980 publication of IUCN World Conservation Strategy. Published in cooperation with UNEP, WWF, FAO, and UNESCO. Established the concept of "sustainable development."

3. World Commission on Environment and Development Report. Published as Our Common Future. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).

4. Agenda 21 & UNCED Proceedings, 1992 Series. Expected six volume series published by Oceana. Two volumes currently available. ISBN 0-379-193508. Excellent documentation.

5. Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet. Richard Benedick. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991).

6. Biodiversity and International Law. Simone Bilderbeek, ed. (IOS Press, 1991).

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The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: Process and Documentation

Shanna L. Halpern