CIESIN Reproduced, with permission, from: Tolba, M., O. A. El-Kholy, E. El-Hinnawi, M. E. Holdgate, D. F. McMichael and R. E. Munn, eds. 1992. The world environment 1972-1992: Two decades of challenge, 766-67, 779. London: Chapman and Hall.

Regional UN security and economic arrangements The original post-war regional arrangements for international peace and security have evolved into fora concerned with a broader range of issues. For example, the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) evolved into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Its mandate has expanded from promoting regional peace and security to accelerating economic growth and co- operation among its members. Co-operation in the field of environment commenced in 1977, and is today reflected in the third ASEAN Environment Programme (1988- 1992), adopted by the Third ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on the Environment (UNEP/ASEAN, 1988).
In Asia and the Pacific, ASEAN co-operation on the environment began in 1977 when a draft Sub-Regional Environmental Programme (ASEP I) was prepared. The ASEAN Experts Croup on the Environment (AEGE) has met annually since 1977: in 1990 it was replaced by Ministers with a group of ASEAN Senior Officials on the Environment (ASOEN) which is co-ordinated by the member countries on a three-year rotation and is designed to ensure the co- ordinated planning and implementation of regional environmental programmes. ASEAN countries have adopted several official declarations and agreements including the Manila Declaration on Heritage Parks and Reserves, the Bangkok Declaration on the ASEAN Environment (1984), an Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1985), and a Jakarta Resolution on Sustainable Development (1987).