Technical Notes to the Economic Indicator Tables

The Economic Indicator Tables (EITs) that follow country texts recast socio-economic indicators reported in other Bank publications, notably World Tables and World Debt Tables, in order to provide a uniform statistical framework for analyzing countries' economic peformances. The technical notes from those publications are not repeated here; readers interested in details of sources, methods, standards, and definitions normally applied to the data should refer to the Bank's statistical publications directly. For further information, users are invited to address the Socio-Economic Data Division of theWorld Bank's International Economics Department.

Differences between data in EITs and other Bank publications normally arise from the "vintage" of the data and, more importantly, because EITs are designed more for analysis of individual countries than for international comparisons. EITs may use country data that are not compiled in strict accordance with international standards but are the most recent estimates available and often the ones most useful in placing country policy decisions in context. These differences are generally not considered analytically significant for a particular country. Exceptions, and other known limitations of EIT data, are sometimes noted in the tables.

Data in EITs are, for the most part, a "core" of socio-economic indicators used internally by the Bank. They are displayed in a uniform format that analyzes national accounting aggregates on the first data page, international transactions on the second, and fiscal accounts and external debt on the third.

The first page of each table contains the mid-year population and per capita GNP from the 1991 World Bank Atlas, modified to reflect more recent estimates. National accounts are presented as shares of current price GDP, growth rates for constant 1987 price series, rescaled from the country's original base year to 1987 prices. These indicators are useful for interpreting the effects of changing terms of trade and for noting country differences in the importance of factor income and unrequited transfers to or from the rest of the world.

Note that national accounts data are partially rebased to improve cross-country comparability and that least-square growth rates are used for periods of more than a year. For additional details, see the World Tables technical notes.

Import elasticities and ICORs (incremental capital-output ratios) are calculated from constant price data. Marginal savings rates of both gross domestic savings (GDS) and gross national savings (GNS) are calculated from denated current price data, with GDP, GDS, GNP, and GNS all denated by the same implicit price denators to produce marginal saving rates undistorted by inflation. GDS is defined as gross domestic income (GDP adjusted for terms of trade effects) less total consumption; GNS differs by including net factor income.

The second page of each table relies in part on data published in the International Monetary Fund's International Financial Statistics (IFS) and Balance of Payments Statistics, but includes Bank staff estimates, especially for recent years. External trade data should be consistent with those in the balance of payments for merchandise trade (adjusting imports between c.i.f.- cost, insurance, and freight-and f.o.b-free on board) and in national accounts (when adjusted for nonfactor services) but differences in the two data sets can occur because different sources may be used in compiling the figures. While work is progressing within the Bank to resolve or at least explain major differences, measures obtained from each set are reported. This should assist readers to make their own judgments about the analytical implications of differences that do exist. Exports are detailed to report separately on as many as four nonfuel primary products, fuels, and manufactures. A listing of abbreviations used in this section is included at the back of the book. Imports are detailed according to an end-use classification although the national methodology is not always known, especially for intermediate goods. Therefore the numbers shown are not comparable across countries.

Note that the price indices are usually in accordance with national methodologies.

Three ratios express key balance of payments measures as a percentage of GDP at the botom of the balance of payments section on the second page. GDP converted to US dollars is reported in the same section to help users compile additional ratios. Measures are also provided for reserves (wi~h and without gold valued at the end-year London market price) and the (principal) exchange rate as reported in the IFS. For exceptional cases, the Bank uses a different conversion factor for estimating GNP in US dollars.

The third page of each table begins with summary measures of the budget for the level of govemment considered most appropriate for analysis of macroeconomic issues. This is sometimes the central govemment as defined in the Fund's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook but may be narrowly defined (budgetary central govemment) or include additional units of general govemment; in exceptional cases, accounts of some or all public enterprises are also consolidated. Where possible, the heading identifies coverage of the accounts given in the EIT. All figures are presented as shares of GDP calculated from data in current market prices.

The external capital flows, debt, and debt burden ratios are based mainly on the Bank's Debtor Reporting System and reported in more detail in the World Debt Tables. For calculating ratios, "exports" comprise merchandise exports plus receipts from services (factor and nonfactor), plus workers' remittances. DOD refers to debt outstanding and disbursed; LT means long-term, ST means short-term.